The thyroid hormones T3 and T4 affect the metabolism, and ability to concentrate are also interacts with other hormones. Where and how they are distributed, how the spread in the body is going on and what happens when we are too few or too many thyroid hormones are available, please click here .

What are thyroid hormones are and how they get into the cells of the body?

In general, two types of thyroid hormones, the first of triiodothyronine (T 3 ¬) and secondly the tetraiodothyronine (T4, thyroxine briefly mentioned). How can the two names suggests, the T3 has three and the four T4-iodine particles. For the production of these hormones requires the thyroid iodide ions, which are supplied through the food in the form of iodine.


Among the foods that are rich in iodine, including iodized salt (15-25mg/kg), marine fish such as tuna (72μg/100g) and saithe (40μg/100g) and cheeses such as feta cheese, 50% fat (114μg/100g). To supply the body optimally, the DACH benchmark 180-200μg/Jod per day is considered an adult. Is the body a sufficient amount of iodine for the synthesis of the hormones are available, can be produced in the thyroid of thyroid tissue by the enzyme thyroid peroxidase T3 and T4. From there, the hormones are then released into the bloodstream and transported to the cells in the body. These hormones bind mainly to the “Thyroxinbinde globulins,” which are small protein particles, and use this as a carrier (“transport”). Only 0.3% of T3 and T4 in the blood are not bound to move so freely, without a carrier in the blood.

And it is precisely these free forms are particularly effective in the cells. However, both of the bound, are included as well as the free thyroid hormones, only the T3 in the cells, however, the T4 is used primarily for storage and must be before the first recording by an enzyme called T4 and 5’Dejodase an iodine particles takes away, are reduced to T3. In the blood 40 times as many are also like T3 T4 particles. So the body has enough hormones to supply, has to be able to compensate, even in times of reduced hormone production, these changes immediately.

How does the regulation and secretion of these hormones?

Although thyroid hormones are produced in the thyroid and from there into the blood and subsequently into the cells, however, begins the process of hormone production and – for distribution in the brain, strictly speaking, in the hypothalamus. In this “control center” will determine whether a sufficient number of thyroid hormones in the body are present. This is not the case, then the hormone TRH (thyroliberin) to the pituitary gland, also made a part of the brain, in contrast, is an excess of T3/T4 SIH (somatostatin) were distributed. Thus, the pituitary by the hypothalamus receives important information, which they then passed on to the thyroid gland, in turn, in the form of a hormone, the TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone, also called Thyrotropsin). Depending namely, how much TSH the thyroid receives, or is this T3 and T4 are the two hormones into the blood.

What functions do thyroid hormones in the body?

The specific roles of thyroid hormones to regulate the temperature balance in the body, therefore make sure that the body temperature in different room or outside temperature remains constant, and the regulation of metabolism. The main reason is that caused by 02-T3 consumption, which leads through combustion processes in the body and thus increases the energy consumption. Moreover, the effectiveness of other energy-enhancing hormones turnover, such as insulin and adrenalin, guaranteed by T3. General functions of the thyroid hormones are the maturation and growth, particularly in connection with the brain, nerves and bones.

What is the effect of a hormone inadequate value and what are the treatment options?

If the hormone levels in the blood normally, then the organism is functioning properly. Are deviations, up or down before, can lead to physical problems. Called by a deficiency of thyroid hormones, hypothyroidism in technical language, the body lacks an important second messengers, which means that slows the metabolism. Poor concentration, fatigue and depression phases can be felt as well as external phenomena occur in the form of brittle hair, weight gain, and a hoarse voice. In the opposite case, an overactive thyroid, hyperthyroidism, there are too many thyroid hormones in the body. Thus, the processes in the body “accelerated”, so to speak, he runs at full speed. The consequences, while signs of nervousness, anxiety, diarrhea and weight loss despite increased appetite.

The causes of both disorders can be either on the thyroid itself or any of the other two parts of the endocrine system in the brain, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland are. A clear sign of thyroid disease is also the emergence of a goiter. By then it is advisable to consult a doctor. This results first and foremost through a blood test to get accurate information on the hormonal status. Discovered you are deviations from the normal value, are then performed for the diagnosis and proper treatment further investigation. The sonography (ultrasound) and scintigraphy (imaging technique) provide detailed information to clarify the causes and provide insight into the function and possible changes in the thyroid gland.

The treatment of hyper-or hypothyroidism occurs in many cases by taking pills that contain either the missing hormones or inhibit the production of the shuffle mode. Selenium is a mineral as a natural antagonist of iodine and thyroid hormone production and inhibits the conversion of inactive T4 to active T3 form.