The menstrual cycle is a complex interplay of various processes in the female body that are controlled by hormones. But how much do you really know about your own cycle?

The first menstrual period is about one to 13 years, from age 40 Age of the irregular cycles and between 48 – 52 years set the menopause (menopause), which end with the last menstrual period (menopause).
The aim of the menstrual cycle is to have mature fertilizable egg every month. During the cycle, there will be changes in the ovary (ovary), uterus (womb) and cervix (cervix). Many women suffer during or shortly before menstruation on premenstrual syndrome (PMS), through the emotional and physical symptoms such as abdominal cramps and depression occur.


Egg development

Long before the first menstrual cycle begins, the eggs in the female body to be created. The incubation period is from this long before the birth – much earlier than the sperm in the male organism. After the 1st Weeks of gestation is completed this process and thereby laid eggs can not be replicated later. The eggs remain in the idle state until the onset of sexual maturity by about every 28 days for a new egg fertilization to mature.

The cycle is divided into phases

The cycle length is from woman to woman a little different and is about 21 – 35 days. The beginning of the cycle is always the recurring monthly menstrual period. The first Phase, the follicular phase is determined by the egg (ovulation) of the 2nd Phase, the luteal phase separated.

The exact course of the cycle

Day 1
As mentioned above, is 1 Day of the cycle of the start of menstrual bleeding, which usually take 2 – 6 days. Here, a woman loses approximately 20 – 60 ml blood.

1st-14th Day (follicular phase)
In the follicular phase of the uterine lining is constructed to be prepared for the implantation of the fertilized ovum. In the mature ovary under the influence of the hormone FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) about 20 follicles (follicles) approach. One of them is becoming a dominant follicle and stimulates estrogen production. The cervix is ​​still very small in the follicular phase and partly obscured by a highly viscous mucus.

14th Day (ovulation)
The dominant follicle produces more and more estrogen. This in turn allows the production of LH (luteinizing hormone) to rise. This increase will eventually ovulate. After ovulation the egg travels from the ovary through the fallopian tubes into the uterus. During ovulation, the cervical mucus less viscous and the cervix is ​​slightly open, to facilitate the sperm the way to the egg for fertilization.

14th-28th Day (luteal phase)
Does fertilization takes place, on the 22nd day, the implantation of the egg into the uterus. If no fertilization takes is converted into the corpus luteum of the follicle and begins the luteal phase. The corpus luteum produces the hormone progesterone, which stimulates the production of estrogens, together with another hormone, the corpus luteum to regress again. After the fall of estrogen and progesterone concentrations decline again, this has the consequence that the endometrium is shed. This process is manifest in the form of menstrual bleeding.

Through various methods of contraception such as eg the pill, which is used most often by women, is subject to fluctuations in the cycle no longer and it will set the time precisely. After 21 days, followed by a revenue pill “hormone withdrawal bleed”, which roughly corresponds to the menstrual period.