The pancreas, known in medical jargon pancreas forms, including the two important hormones, insulin and glucagon.

The pancreas has an important function in our body: it makes digestive enzymes that cleave proteins in the intestine, carbohydrates and fats and thus make receivable for the intestinal mucosa. In addition to this important role in digestion, the pancreas is also responsible for the production of hormones that are passed on directly to the blood.


Islets of Langerhans

That part of the pancreas, in which the hormones are produced is called the islets of Langerhans. Their main task is the regulation of blood sugar levels over the two hormones insulin and glucagon. The islets also form the hormone somatostatin, which acts as an antagonist of many other hormones. In the islets of Langerhans, there are three different types of cells that each produce a hormone. The A-cells produce glucagon, insulin, however the B-cells. In the D-cells, the hormone somatostatin is produced. These cell groups are like little islands separated from each other, hence the name islets of Langerhans.

Insulin – lowers blood sugar

Glucose is the main supplier of energy in our body. It is released during digestion of carbohydrates in the intestine and then distributed by the blood in the body. Can enter the cells to glucose, but only if enough insulin in the body is present. The name is derived directly from his insulin education center, the islets of Langerhans from. The hormone has in common with its counterparts glucagon play an important role for the blood sugar levels.

Insulin is responsible for lowering blood sugar. For this purpose, it improves the absorption of glucose into muscle, fat and liver cells, increases the synthesis of blood sugar-accumulating substances and inhibits the breakdown of proteins and fats. The body is not enough insulin is produced, there is a metabolic disease. Insulin deficiency leads to the diabetes mellitus and diabetes is reflected in elevated blood sugar levels. This disease occurs in the population are relatively common and is usually due to being overweight and inadequate exercise.

In addition to regulating blood sugar, insulin has an effect on fat metabolism. By favoring the formation of body fat and suppresses the breakdown of fat, it acts on the metabolism. Does the body too much body fat can be claimed with the formation of insulin in the pancreas circumstances. The more fat you have, the higher the insulin levels required.

Glucagon – raises blood sugar

The glucagon is in the blood sugar cycle the opponent to insulin. While this reduced the blood sugar can increase the value of the glucagon. In addition to the glucagon can also use the hormones adrenaline and cortisol, and thyroid hormones, increasing effect on blood sugar levels. Drops of blood sugar, or was a meal rich in protein, glucagon is released from the pancreas into the blood. It is taken as a result of the liver where it causes an increase in the degradation of glycogen animal starch. In lipid metabolism, the glucagon also acts against the insulin. While this favors the cultivation of body fat, glucagon promotes fat loss.

Production of insulin and glucagon

The production of most hormones is controlled by the brain congestion gland. Not so, however, those of insulin and glucagon. The production volume results solely from the height of the mirror of each other’s hormones in the blood. Thus, if the blood sugar level is too high, while producing insulin until the normal value is reached again. The production of glucagon runs in the circuit with the formation of insulin, that is also independent of the brain rush gland. If the blood sugar level is high, the formation is inhibited. At low levels, however, the production of glucagon is increased.


The third in the league of the pancreatic endocrine hormones is somatostatin, which mainly acts as an inhibitor in the digestive process. It leads to a decrease in movements in the stomach and intestine and decreases the secretion of digestive juices. It also inhibits the secretion of gastric acid and pancreatic enzymes. Except in the islets of Langerhans, it is also formed in the small intestine during the process of digestion. In addition, the somatostatin also acts as an antagonist of growth hormone somatotropin. This also results in the name of the hormone. Generally, it is an inhibitor of various hormones, such as the cortisol, gastrin or secretin.