Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that can be controlled with diet, drugs and exercise. One out of ten diabetics is insulin.
The diet in people with diabetes plays a very important as it allows the control of blood sugar more effectively. Apart from diet, other methods to control diabetes and include physical exercise , medication and insulin.
In newborns, the diet should provide 120 calories per kilogram of body weight. Until infants need 80 to 100 cal / kg and from year to 1,000 calories was 12 plus age multiplied by one hundred. From the 12 years between 2,000 and 2,500 cal / day, except teenage girls who need between 1,500 and 2,000 cal / day. If the diabetic patient also overweight, reduce 500 calories from your daily energy needs for weight loss.
Food to follow in diabetes
It is very important to keep a balanced diet of nutrients and calories to avoid deficiencies, considering the insulin dose, type and timing of taking it to take effect. Must be flexible to meet changing needs, depending on the growth and activity of the child. It must also be acceptable in personal preferences, cultural or racial family. They recommend foods rich in antioxidants, mainly fruits and vegetables.
Must provide the 10 to 15% of total caloric value of the diet but should not exceed 2 grams per kilogram of body weight. We must take into account its impact on renal hemodynamics, growth and development. If you have microalbuminuria or renal proteins will be below 8% of total caloric value. Replacing animal protein by plant could reduce these two diseases in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy.
Between 20 and 25% of the total caloric value of the diet will come from fat. Of dietary fat, saturated fatty acids contribute less than 10%, between 12 and 15 monounsaturated and polyunsaturated% 6 to 10%. Cholesterol is very important to control and keep it below 200 mg / dl.
Carbohydrates account for between 50 and 60% of total caloric diet and a diet rich in carbohydrates improves insulin sensitivity but may increase triglyceride levels. Avoid simple sugars and complex sugars replace.
Provide approximately 30 grams of fiber per day both soluble and insoluble, as this slows down the digestion and absorption of food causing the increase of blood glucose is more gradual. If the input fiber is abrupt and hypoglycemia may occur if excessive can cause flatulence.
Sorbitol is a sweetener contraindicated in uncontrolled diabetes. Saccharin does not add calories and aspartame is unstable to heat, both restricted its use in children. The addition of sucrose does not increase excessively postprandial blood glucose and is a good substituent other carbohydrates. The fructose may have adverse effects on cholesterol and LDL .
If you do not eat certain foods, if taken in excess fiber or carried out a diet below the 1,000 kcal / day should be given vitamin supplements.
Need for minerals
Supplement for deficiency of manganese, chromium and potassium. Calcium needs to age 6 are 600 mg / day and from 6 years between 1,000 and 1,200 mg / day. Sodium is furnished in the same quantities as in the rest of the population. In case of high blood pressure restrict sodium. Carrying out all these dietary recommendations are able to control diabetes mellitus, taking into account the recommendations of the physician on the use of drugs, insulin and physical activity, and other recommendations.